Since 1954 — when the country experienced 93.9mm of rainfall in the pre-monsoon season of March, April and May — showers have dipped below the three-figure mark only in 2009 (99mm), 2012 (the driest at 90.5mm) and 2019 (99mm). The highest deficiency has been witnessed in Madhya Maharashtra, Marathwada and Vidarbha in Maharashtra, Konkan-Goa, Gujarat, Saurashtra and Kutch, coastal Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Puducherry, among others.